I am the one writing this page Jarrett. I am one of the two founders. I live in ohio. I make animations which I will post some but, also i write books i will post those two. There is one animation. Since that is one animation here is one story named James Gravel.
James befriended them and they hunted and did everything they needed to.
Hunter Terry was the hunter. Morgan Senyitko who happened to be Hunter’s mate was the cooker. Along with A.J. Slayer.| James helped everyone but mainly Hunter.
Nitchel waited in the cavern for James to return. The team waited for everyone but they didn’t know they were running out of time. On Tyson and Karter side they were trying there hands at potions. Drake was with Miranda trying to find Mason who was only wolf form now.
“Mason come back, we need you.” Miranda said. “Miranda don’t worry we’ll find him.” Drake said to keep Miranda calm but was freaking out more than she was inside him.
Nitchel was in the cavern but there was a portal that lead him to a vast deep red hallway. He walked. Continued, and keep on walking until there was nothing and the hallway was never. There was a sign that said “Get to the end of this hallway and you will get out of this hallway.” Nitchel saw a small hole. He used his special ability being able to transform into a fox. He went through and was back at his house just in time for Christmas it was Christmas Eve. Nitchel saw his little 6 year old brother watching TV. His favorite show “The Animal Group”. The show was about four animals. A fox named Nitchel. (That’s Nitchel favorite character.) A red bird named Scarlet. A turtle named Steve. There was also an owl named Soren. Nitchel needed to find everyone and continue the gems of life. To get that dragon out of Sindo and soon the world. The show interrupted with a news announcement. It caught Nitchel’s attention.
“Good evening Crovy Scarlet Share here with a big announcement. There is a new team to save the world. We don’t have the name but we have the members thanks to this young fellow Noah Comet. They are as followed:
James Gravel Nitchel Fox Karter Kombat Tyson Slasher Drake Defense Cody Lee
James brother and dad looked at him. He said “Stop staring at me.” He stormed off. He ran into the new woods off his new house. He didn’t know these woods so he kept going. He heard a sound behind him. He quickly turned around. It was a duck. He looked the other way and saw a Hawk actually kinda his name was Hawk and he was a human.
“Come on”Drake yelled to Miranda “We’re gonna not catch them” “I’m coming I’m coming gosh”Miranda said. “Miranda look at this city it is called Gravellet but in the sign it says [Gravel]let weird right”Drake said. “ Yes cool whatever I love you have this rose”said Miranda handing Drake a rose. “I feel the same way no I don’t I love you more.”Drake said. “Great I just figured out you love me I was joking wow hahahahah.”Miranda said in a jerky voice. “I don’t care atleast I admitted it and you I have never heard you admit anything ms.secret.”Drake said. “And it will stay like that I have one big secret James and Mason don’t even know yet empthesis on yet”Miranda said. “Wow your brothers don’t even know anyways lets get in to Gravellet.So Drake and Miranda walked inside the city.
It’s not over
“Hello Yusuff Zachary which power are you?”Mason asked. “Thanks for telling me everything again Mason”Seryn said. “Your welcome again Seryn”Spoke Mason. “Excuse me I teach all powers combined and we battle and if you win I will do anything.”Yusuff said. “Anything?”Questioned Mason. “Yes anything”Yusuff answered. “How about give all my powers to James make me a werewolf and transport Seryn me James and Amber to Gravellet where Miranda and Drake are.”Mason spoke. “I can do that all besides the werewolf part and the teleporting.”Yusuff spoke. “Seryn make me a werewolf”spoke Mason.So Seryn bite him.Mason blacked out. “So Seryn your boyfriend fainted would you be the nicest girlfriend he will ever have and battle me”Yusuff spoke. “Fine,whatever just for Mason though”Seryn spoke.So Seryn turned into a wolf.
“Thank you so very much for training me,Amber how can I ever repay you?”James asked. “A kiss maybe only if you want to though”Amber suggested. “Yes”James said.
So they kissed.
“Let me get this straight you weren’t kidding when you said I love you”Drake asked in amazement on stage in a theatre. “Drake stop were on a stage”Miranda whispered to Drake nervously. “I know that is why I brought you here I need to know the answer so just tell me if you love m or not and I will leave this question will be left alone unless it’s a yes so just answer me”Drake said.
“How do you say the longest English word again”spoke Mason as he was about to crack up in laughter. “methionylglutaminylarginyltyrosylglutamylserylleucyl phenylalanylalanylglutaminylleucyllysylglutamylarginyl lysylglutamylglycylalanylphenylalanylvalylprolylphenyl alanylvalylthreonylleucylglycylaspartylprolylglycylisol eucylglutamylglutaminylserylleucyllysylisoleucylaspartyl threonylleucylisoleucylglutamylalanylglycylalanylaspartyl alanylleucylglutamylleucylglycylisoleucylprolylphenyl alanylserylaspartylprolylleucylalanylaspartylglycylprolyl threonylisoleucylglutaminylasparaginylalanylthreonylleucyl arginylalanylphenylalanylalanylalanylglycylvalylthreonyl prolylalanylglutaminylcysteinylphenylalanylglutamyl methionylleucylalanylleucylisoleucylarginylglutaminyllysyl histidylprolylthreonylisoleucylprolylisoleucylglycylleucyl leucylmethionyltyrosylalanylasparaginylleucylvalylphenyl alanylasparaginyllysylglycylisoleucylaspartylglutamylphenyl alanyltyrosylalanylglutaminylcysteinylglutamyllysylvalyl glycylvalylaspartylserylvalylleucylvalylalanylaspartylvalyl prolylvalylglutaminylglutamylserylalanylprolylphenylalanyl arginylglutaminylalanylalanylleucylarginylhistidylasparaginyl valylalanylprolylisoleucylphenylalanylisoleucylcysteinyl prolylprolylaspartylalanylaspartylaspartylaspartylleucyl leucylarginylglutaminylisoleucylalanylseryltyrosylglycyl arginylglycyltyrosylthreonyltyrosylleucylleucylserylarginyl alanylglycylvalylthreonylglycylalanylglutamylasparaginyl arginylalanylalanylleucylprolylleucylasparaginylhistidyl leucylvalylalanyllysylleucyllysylglutamyltyrosylasparaginyl alanylalanylprolylprolylleucylglutaminylglycylphenylalanyl glycylisoleucylserylalanylprolylaspartylglutaminylvalyllysyl alanylalanylisoleucylaspartylalanylglycylalanylalanylglycyl alanylisoleucylserylglycylserylalanylisoleucylvalyllysylisol eucylisoleucylglutamylglutaminylhistidylasparaginylisoleucyl glutamylprolylglutamyllysylmethionylleucylalanylalanylleucyl lysylvalylphenylalanylvalylglutaminylprolylmethionyllysyl alanylalanylthreonylarginylserine”Seryn said out of breath at the end. Mason started to laugh like crazy. They both heard a bat.They were both werewolves now so Mason transformed into a wolf. “Get it Mason you want the bat kill it kill it kill it”Seryn chanted. Mason scratched it and the bat turned into a human and died. “Vampire”Mason said.
“Thanks for training me Amber I can take on anything I want to know even you”James said. “You can’t take on me James”Amber said confidently. “Yes I can”James said powerfully. “Prove it then James is you are so positive you are a better power keeper than the goddess of the power keepers”Amber said. “Gotcha”James said. “We gotta get to Gravellet though come on James let’s go”Amber said.
“We’re almost here Mason get into wolf form we’ll go faster that way.”Seryn suggested.
Mason shook his head yes.
even though they are already at Gravellet
“Miranda look at this book it is pi decimal to ten-thousand I am going to read it”Drake said in the city library.
The book read as
“Hey Amber look it’s my brother Mason and his girlfriend Seryn”James said as he was so excited to see his brother. “Hey Seryn look it’s my brother James and his girlfriend Amber”Mason said as he was so excited to see his brother.
“Cool”Amber spoke. “Whatever”Seryn said. Since James was going to be twelve tomorrow they would be allowed to go to the bank and get money and James’s parents were rich so they could get their own house.So they decided to get in Gravellet and they have are going to have a house party so everyone is coming with them to Gravellet.
James stepped into the house first and started to explore it.In the basement he found something like this:
Sigma Epsilon Rho Psi Nu
Beta Alpha Delta
James was confused what it meant he ripped it out of the notebook.Then he went on the internet to look it up his and his fingers slipped off of the keyboard and they spelled this povelia insla and the computer said do you mean Poveglia Island and James clicked and it said.
After that James searched what he was going to search.
The internet said Seryn is bad.
So James hit sources and it said Drake Defense and it showed a picture of James’s friend Drake.The bio read : Drake Defense is a guardian some might say he has saved 127,983 lives on a census of 2000.His Mother and Father are divorced.He is very gifted in music.
For more information on Drake Defense please visit www.drakedefense.org.
So James clicked the link. Then he hit, get the latest news on Drake defense and watch videos.
The featured video was the newest one titled Drake’s new girlfriend.
James clicked it. And the video showed Drake and Miranda on stage with Drake saying “So you weren’t joking when you said loved me”Drake asked.
James eyes opened widely.Then drake and Miranda started to kiss.James looked at the clock and noticed it was 3:10 in the morning and he couldn’t find Mason so he went outside to look for him.
James left the house and went outside to the neighbors house well it wasn’t a house or there neighbors it was a cemetery.
“Mason where are you oh forget it.”James said as he went home to go to bed.
James’s has weird dreams this is the weirdest he’s had all in his life. It went like this:
James was scared when he woke up so he went to Mason’s bed cause he was not back yet.He had another dream like that though it went like this:
He woke up in the morning finally. He went in the bathroom looked in the mirror and said “Bloody Mary Bloody Mary Bloody Mary”Jame chanted.Nothing happened to him so he left.Then he got Grabbed!!!
When they were leaving
James saw a sign that said Gravellet gem of life in water temple.
“Tyson we got to go back there is a gem of life here.” James said sacredly. “Fine let’s go”Tyson said.
If you have not noticed Mason is a werewolf now I will get into further detail later. He is in wolf form in this part. Also Seryn and him have broke up.
“You’re a good wolf aren’t you” said a girl named Sunny Darth who Mason was attracted to in wolf and human form. The wolf (Mason) ran away. “Wait” Sunny shrieked. Mason went by a tree and changed into human form. He dropped his phone and the girl got it. She saw his name so she would track him down.
That is the team name for the quest. The quest was to get the 9 gems of life.
I will now list the members.
James Tyson Gravel Tyson James Slasher Karter Richard Kombat Drake David Defense Noah Matthew Comet Mason Steven Gravel
The six are Team and they’re quest to get the 9 gems of life.
I will now list some info on the members:
James Tyson Gravel:
Age:11 Birthday: June 26,2000 Favorite Color: Clear Blue Position: Co-leader Weapon: Powers
Tyson James Slasher:
Age: 11 Birthday: June 27,2000 Favorite Color: Gray Position: Co-leader Weapon: Acen Sword
Karter Richard Kombat:
Age: 10 Birthday: January 1,2001 Favorite Color: Tan Position: 3rd in line of leader Weapon: Fists
Drake David Defense:
Age: 10 Birthday: March 27,2001 Favorite Color: Purple Position: 4th in line of leader Weapon: Potions
Noah Matthew Comet:
Age: 11 Birthday: October 23,2000 Favorite Color: Red Position: 5th in line for leader Weapon: Comets (Made by speed.)
Mason Steven Gravel:
Age: 10 Birthday: September 13,2001 Favorite Color: Gray Position: 6th in line for leader Weapon: Wolf
Now there quest begins.
James finally had the time travel watch. He set it to April 14, 1912 On the Titanic. Little did James know that he only had 1 hour and 40 minutes before the Titanic hit the iceberg. James had no idea. He went through back in time through a vortex. This is the vortex that he used to get on the Titanic.
James warped into a cabin.
He left and started looking for the gem. He had to go quick but he had no idea it was going to crash soon. So Drake Karter and Noah had to make another time traveling necklace.
They handed Tyson the necklace. He set it to the same time it would’ve been now where James is.
That is Tyson’s vortex.
A few seconds after that they were back and had it, but James was in a bad shape.(They were back so fast by they got it and they set it to a few seconds after they left.)
James hit the watch and set it so he would not be in a bad shape like this.
His Vortex was the same.
James watched in horror as he saw himself halfway drown. He jumped and saved himself. When he let go he was in a room that halfway covered in water.
Just then James had a vision it showed Noah dying. James tried to warp back but the bracelet fell off. How was he going to get back? He swam up and went back using his past selves watch. He set it to on the Titanic and he caught it when his other past self dropped it and he was back.
He was back and he set it so fast a split second no one even knew he was gone. He had another vision of his friends Zeke and Luke having powers.
He saw himself in a hospital, with Noah, Steven, Fred and, Mercenies. With Noah on the ground lying dead.
James awoke in his home town Sindo. He walked into his a house that belonged to Luke.
It was a bright hot sunny day. When James, Mason, Luke, Zeke and Hawk all headed to the woods for there annual capture the flag before James and Mason had to go on the cruise. (Thus was the beginning of the book.) rest maybe later.
There was a flash flood when he woke up. James ran to the basement to hide. The water rushed in behind him. James continued to run. The water was right behind him. He ran in a room and shut the door. The water came in very slowly. James turned on the light. James was amazed he saw a car in the middle of the basement. He walked into it. He found a piece of paper and a backpack and another time traveling watch. He looked at the piece of paper it said things to collect for the chosen to win the war. James eyebrows moved up in curiosity.
1. The 9 gems of life. (1.) Water gem-on the Titanic (2.) Ice gem-Mount. Distant (3.) Fire gem-Volcano Sindo (4.) Grass Gem-Lost Forest (5.) Electric Gem-Spark Facility (6.) Steel Gem-Iron Wall (7.)Earth Gem-The center of earth. (8.)Dark Gem- Black hole (9.)Air Gem-Heaven
The four swords
The sword of
The sword of The sword of The sword of The two armors The armor of The armor of
The four Monuments Monument of
James took both of the time traveling watches and put them in a circle in the car the car had a screen that said Time travel mode activated. James looked at the paper and traveled to 1995 to get the monument of time.
Chapter Monument time
James knew he would end up biting more than he could chew. So when he arrived he had no idea where it was only the year. He got out of the car. Reached in his pockets and looked at the gems of life then just put them back in his pocket. James flipped the piece of paper over and it read the gems monuments can transform in to the chosen sword the most powerful sword ever lived and can take anything but you need to have all the monuments and gems. James threw the 2 gems he had in the air and it formed part of the handle. Then they transformed back. James put them in his pocket. He went to a bike store to try and get a bike. First he had to park the car though and hide it. James parked it in the woods. He ran to the bike shop and walked in. “Hello I would like a bike.” James said. “Well what kind would you like?” The bike owner asked. “One that is very fast.” Answered James. “Then you want this” He said showing James a bike. “How much?” “5o Bucks” “I don’t have enough money.” “Then no bike for you” James left and so did the guy into the back room to put it away. James walked in again and watched him put it away. The guy walked back to the register to welcome the new customer. James climbed up to get it looked to see who the customer was. The customer was James parents Mason was in a crib and James’s mom was pregnant with James. “Why are my parents here?” James muttered to himself. He remembered Mason told him the story how a bike almost hit him when he was a little boy. James dropped the bike very close to him. Then he hid behind the other bikes. They walked away. He jumped down to grab the bike. “Hey you get away from the bike you can not pay for it!” The bike owner yelled. James grabbed the bike and pedaled as fast as he could. The owner grabbed his motorcycle and they were off. James was about to get hit by a car so he jumped off the bike. The bike got ran over. Ironically James landed in Gravellet. He saw his house before he lived in it. There was a little girl living in it all alone. James went in the woods, by his house. He was in
He found a huge grass wall there so he burned it down. After that there was the grass gem of life. James grabbed it. He took out the rest and they went into sword form. He had a slightly bigger handle. James was walking back and there was a huge grass dragon. James fire would not work on the dragon. James started to run. The dragon chased him. James hid under his future house. He set the gem under his house. James teleported to the car. He got in it. The he went to 2011 and in the lost forest. He parked there. He got out and some one asked “What is that?” The persons name was Sunnie Slayer.
“What’s what?” James said suspiciously putting his elbow on the car trying to hide it. “That car didn’t it like just teleport here or something?” “What are you talking about how can a car travel through time and teleport impossible I say.” “I didn’t say anything about time traveling.” James started to run. Sunnie actually ran at supersonic speed and caught him very fast. “Just give me your blood and tell me about the car and I will kill you and you will be done with this.” Sunnie demanded. James was too focused on running to use powers so he could not defend himself. James ran behind a tree and someone stepped up and shot a beam of light at the vampire. James watched lovestruckly and in amazement. James walked to his house while they were battling. He dug under his house and found many rodents. One bit him on the leg. It hurt him. It was a mouse but it was poisonous so it would hurt. James collapsed. When he awoke he soon found himself lying in a bed at a local hospital. It was the same room he was in before when Noah died. James looked under the bed and found a note and the time travel watch. The Note read as:
Dear James, I really hope you find this if the other people did we would lose. I taped the time travel watch to this for a reason. The reason is I know I will die saving you I don’t want to die that’s why. I want you to time travel with it and save me I will know pretty much everything that happened. I also can help you (Once you save me if you do hopefully). The time travel watch doesn’t work sadly it’s a teleporter right now. It transports to heaven where I am and the air gem. You can teleport me back and get the air gem. Yes you will be able to get back. I really hope you find this.
Your dead, in need of help friend,
James unhooked it and healed his poison and teleported to heaven. Then someone was talking to him and zapped him into medieval times. James landed in Sindo as medieval times. He walked around it. (He could do it very quickly.). James entered the blacksmith shop and asked “I am new to this village where do I get my equipment?”. “You have to buy it” He answered. “I need money I am the new peasant in town my name is James.” “Go collect some gravel I need it for some swords.” “Alright.” So James set out to find gravel in his home town in medieval times. He walked into before it was really the lost forest. Right now it was just some shrubs, stumps and bushes. James found Gravel then reported back. When he was back the person said “Nice job I shall call you
Well James got his name. Suddenly he was back in heaven. “So it didn’t work on you usually people get a different last name than what they have. You can go in.” The guardian of heaven said opening the gate to let James in. James walked in and grab the air gem and Noah and escaped fast. “Hey buddy” James said. “You finally came.” Noah said about to cry and hugging James. “The hug was nice but please don’t do it again.” “Okay.” James and Noah headed back to James’s house. They climbed under and got the grass gem. James grabbed it. “What’s next?” Noah asked. “Spark facility to get the electric gem” James answered. They were off. When they got to the lab they realized this would be by far the hardest. Noah was about to coward out but James told him something that his dad used to tell him. “You’re only as good as you can show.” They walked in and there was a portal and a hallway James went through the portal and Noah went through the hallway. The portal sent James to a electronic world that is very hard to get out off so he might be stuck in here for a while. James started to walk around and two robots grabbed him and put a electronic suit on him. They also put a disc on the back of the suit. James was in a distant world far away from home. He was in a distant electronic world named
. James had to collect 4 discs to get out.
1 Month Later
James grab it and jumped out the portal. He was finally out. He walked out and finally saw Aaron again. “Hey Aaron I did it” James said. “Good job” Aaron said charging up a beam. “What is that beam?” James asked. “ It does this” said Aaron shooting his beam in the air. A giant wall of iron appeared. James walked to it and found the iron gem of life. James knew he would go get the earth gem next. He looked at the paper and it said center of the earth. James was going to the center of the earth .
James noticed the last sentence it was going to be hard for him to get it if he had no powers. James actually saw his house. So he went in it. There was a hole that said to center of earth. James thought it was very coincidental. He went in. There was a huge hole and a fox, rabbit and turtle by it. The rabbit and turtle reminded him of the tortoise and the hare story.
James also saw a bird. It was not a normal bird though. This was Karter’s pet bird that was missing. James instructed it to go home. It went. James looked back again and saw the three other animals turn into humans. James was amazed. He looked suspiciously. “May I ask who you are?” Asked James. “I am Nitchel Fox and you are?” Nitchel said. “I am Virtul Faxer.” Answered Virtul. “I am Hawk I kind of know who you are so don’t worry.” Said Hawk. “I am James Gravel the chosen one.” Said James. “I knew that!” Blurted Hawk. “James Gravel that’s you jolly good let’s go get that gem guys.” Nitchel said starting to jump down a cave hole. “How do you know who I am?” James voice echoed as he yelled it. “I kinder garden you told me who you are and that you are related to King Arthur.
The historical basis for the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars. The first datable mention of King Arthur is in a 9th century Latin text. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum (History of the Britons) and Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals), sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons sometime in the late 5th to early 6th century. The Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, lists twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Mons Badonicus, or Mount Badon, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men. Recent studies, however, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum as a source for the history of this period. The other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which also link Arthur with the Battle of Mount Badon. The Annales date this battle to 516–518, and also mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut (Mordred) were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have often been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur really did fight at Mount Badon. Problems have been identified, however, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account. The latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it even that early. They were more likely added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Mount Badon entry probably derived from the Historia Brittonum. This lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur [but ...] the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him". These modern admissions of ignorance are a relatively recent trend; earlier generations of historians were less sceptical. Historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur (1973). Even so, he found little to say about a historical Arthur.
The 10th-century Annales Cambriae, as copied into a manuscript of c. 1100 Partly in reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain), written within living memory of Mount Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820. He is absent from Bede's early 8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Mount Badon. Historian David Dumville has written: "I think we can dispose of him [Arthur] quite briefly. He owes his place in our history books to a 'no smoke without fire' school of thought ... The fact of the matter is that there is no historical evidence about Arthur; we must reject him from our histories and, above all, from the titles of our books." Some scholars argue that Arthur was originally a fictional hero of folklore—or even a half-forgotten Celtic deity—who became credited with real deeds in the distant past. They cite parallels with figures such as the Kentish totemic horse-gods Hengest and Horsa, who later became historicised. Bede ascribed to these legendary figures a historical role in the 5th-century Anglo-Saxon conquest of eastern Britain. It is not even certain that Arthur was considered a king in the early texts. Neither the Historia nor the Annales calls him "rex": the former calls him instead "dux bellorum" (leader of battles) and "miles" (soldier). Historical documents for the post-Roman period are scarce, so a definitive answer to the question of Arthur's historical existence is unlikely. Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian" since the 12th century, but archaeology can confidently reveal names only through inscriptions found in secure contexts. The so-called "Arthur stone", discovered in 1998 among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant. Other inscriptional evidence for Arthur, including the Glastonbury cross, is tainted with the suggestion of forgery. Although several historical figures have been proposed as the basis for Arthur, no convincing evidence for these identifications has emerged. Name
Main article: Arthur The origin of the name Arthur remains a matter of debate. Some suggest it is derived from the Roman nomen gentile (family name) Artōrius, of obscure and contested etymology (but possibly of Messapic or Etruscan origin). Some scholars have suggested it is relevant to this debate that the legendary King Arthur's name only appears as Arthur, or Arturus, in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as Artōrius (though it should be noted that Classical Latin Artōrius became Arturius in some Vulgar Latin dialects). However, this may not say anything about the origin of the name Arthur, as Artōrius would regularly become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh. Another possibility is that it is derived from a Brittonic patronym *Arto-rīg-ios (the root of which, *arto-rīg- "bear-king" is to be found in the Old Irish personal name Art-ri) via a Latinized form Artōrius. Less likely is the commonly proposed derivation from Welsh arth "bear" + (g)wr "man" (earlier *Arto-uiros in Brittonic); there are phonological difficulties with this theory—notably that a Brittonic compound name *Arto-uiros should produce Old Welsh *Artgur and Middle/Modern Welsh *Arthwr and not Arthur (in Welsh poetry the name is always spelled Arthur and is exclusively rhymed with words ending in -ur - never words ending in -wr - which confirms that the second element cannot be [g]wr "man"). An alternative theory, which has gained only limited acceptance among professional scholars, derives the name Arthur from Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Boötes, near Ursa Major or the Great Bear. Classical Latin Arcturus would also have become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh, and its brightness and position in the sky led people to regard it as the "guardian of the bear" (which is the meaning of the name in Ancient Greek) and the "leader" of the other stars in Boötes. A similar first name is Old Irish Artúr, which is believed to be derived directly from an early Old Welsh or Cumbric Artur. The earliest historically attested bearer of the name is a son or grandson of Áedán mac Gabráin (d. AD 609), Medieval literary traditions
The creator of the familiar literary persona of Arthur was Geoffrey of Monmouth, with his pseudo-historical Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), written in the 1130s. The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey's Historia (known as pre-Galfridian texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, Galfridus) and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence (Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts). Pre-Galfridian traditions
A facsimile page of Y Gododdin, one of the most famous early Welsh texts featuring Arthur, c. 1275 The earliest literary references to Arthur come from Welsh and Breton sources. There have been few attempts to define the nature and character of Arthur in the pre-Galfridian tradition as a whole, rather than in a single text or text/story-type. One recent academic survey that does attempt this, by Thomas Green, identifies three key strands to the portrayal of Arthur in this earliest material. The first is that he was a peerless warrior who functioned as the monster-hunting protector of Britain from all internal and external threats. Some of these are human threats, such as the Saxons he fights in the Historia Brittonum, but the majority are supernatural, including giant cat-monsters, destructive divine boars, dragons, dogheads, giants and witches. The second is that the pre-Galfridian Arthur was a figure of folklore (particularly topographic or onomastic folklore) and localised magical wonder-tales, the leader of a band of superhuman heroes who live in the wilds of the landscape. The third and final strand is that the early Welsh Arthur had a close connection with the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn. On the one hand, he launches assaults on Otherworldly fortresses in search of treasure and frees their prisoners. On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods, and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin. One of the most famous Welsh poetic references to Arthur comes in the collection of heroic death-songs known as Y Gododdin (The Gododdin), attributed to the 6th-century poet Aneirin. In one stanza, the bravery of a warrior who slew 300 enemies is praised, but it is then noted that despite this "he was no Arthur", that is to say his feats cannot compare to the valour of Arthur. Y Gododdin is known only from a 13th-century manuscript, so it is impossible to determine whether this passage is original or a later interpolation, but John Koch's view that the passage dates from a 7th-century or earlier version is regarded as unproven; 9th- or 10th-century dates are often proposed for it. Several poems attributed to Taliesin, a poet said to have lived in the 6th century, also refer to Arthur, although these all probably date from between the 8th and 12th centuries. They include "Kadeir Teyrnon" ("The Chair of the Prince"), which refers to "Arthur the Blessed", "Preiddeu Annwn" ("The Spoils of Annwn"), which recounts an expedition of Arthur to the Otherworld, and "Marwnat vthyr pen[dragon]" ("The Elegy of Uther Pen[dragon]"), which refers to Arthur's valour and is suggestive of a father-son relationship for Arthur and Uther that pre-dates Geoffrey of Monmouth.
Culhwch entering Arthur's Court in the Welsh tale Culhwch and Olwen, 1881 Other early Welsh Arthurian texts include a poem found in the Black Book of Carmarthen, "Pa gur yv y porthaur?" ("What man is the gatekeeper?"). This takes the form of a dialogue between Arthur and the gatekeeper of a fortress he wishes to enter, in which Arthur recounts the names and deeds of himself and his men, notably Cei (Kay) and Bedwyr (Bedivere). The Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen (c. 1100), included in the modern Mabinogion collection, has a much longer list of more than 200 of Arthur's men, though Cei and Bedwyr again take a central place. The story as a whole tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen, daughter of Ysbaddaden Chief-Giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great semi-divine boar Twrch Trwyth. The 9th-century Historia Brittonum also refers to this tale, with the boar there named Troy(n)t. Finally, Arthur is mentioned numerous times in the Welsh Triads, a collection of short summaries of Welsh tradition and legend which are classified into groups of three linked characters or episodes in order to assist recall. The later manuscripts of the Triads are partly derivative from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later continental traditions, but the earliest ones show no such influence and are usually agreed to refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions. Even in these, however, Arthur's court has started to embody legendary Britain as a whole, with "Arthur's Court" sometimes substituted for "The Island of Britain" in the formula "Three XXX of the Island of Britain". While it is not clear from the Historia Brittonum and the Annales Cambriae that Arthur was even considered a king, by the time Culhwch and Olwen and the Triads were written he had become Penteyrnedd yr Ynys hon, "Chief of the Lords of this Island", the overlord of Wales, Cornwall and the North. In addition to these pre-Galfridian Welsh poems and tales, Arthur appears in some other early Latin texts besides the Historia Brittonum and the Annales Cambriae. In particular, Arthur features in a number of well-known vitae ("Lives") of post-Roman saints, none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources (the earliest probably dates from the 11th century). According to the Life of Saint Gildas, written in the early 12th century by Caradoc of Llancarfan, Arthur is said to have killed Gildas' brother Hueil and to have rescued his wife Gwenhwyfar from Glastonbury. In the Life of Saint Cadoc, written around 1100 or a little before by Lifris of Llancarfan, the saint gives protection to a man who killed three of Arthur's soldiers, and Arthur demands a herd of cattle as wergeld for his men. Cadoc delivers them as demanded, but when Arthur takes possession of the animals, they turn into bundles of ferns. Similar incidents are described in the medieval biographies of Carannog, Padarn and Eufflam, probably written around the 12th century. A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii, which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century although the earliest manuscript of this text dates from the 15th century. Also important are the references to Arthur in William of Malmesbury's De Gestis Regum Anglorum and Herman's De Miraculis Sanctae Mariae Laudensis, which together provide the first certain evidence for a belief that Arthur was not actually dead and would at some point return, a theme that is often revisited in post-Galfridian folklore. Geoffrey of Monmouth
Mordred, Arthur's final foe according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, illustrated by H. J. Ford for Andrew Lang's King Arthur: The Tales of the Round Table, 1902 The first narrative account of Arthur's life is found in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Latin work Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain). This work, completed c. 1138, is an imaginative and fanciful account of British kings from the legendary Trojan exile Brutus to the 7th-century Welsh king Cadwallader. Geoffrey places Arthur in the same post-Roman period as do Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae. He incorporates Arthur's father, Uther Pendragon, his magician advisor Merlin, and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, sleeps with Gorlois's wife Igerna at Tintagel, and she conceives Arthur. On Uther's death, the fifteen-year-old Arthur succeeds him as King of Britain and fights a series of battles, similar to those in the Historia Brittonum, culminating in the Battle of Bath. He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland, Iceland and the Orkney Islands. After twelve years of peace, Arthur sets out to expand his empire once more, taking control of Norway, Denmark and Gaul. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory naturally leads to a further confrontation between his empire and Rome's. Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius (Kay), Beduerus (Bedivere) and Gualguanus (Gawain), defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul but, as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus (Mordred)—whom he had left in charge of Britain—has married his wife Guenhuuara (Guinevere) and seized the throne. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded. He hands the crown to his kinsman Constantine and is taken to the isle of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, never to be seen again.
Merlin the wizard, c. 1300 How much of this narrative was Geoffrey's own invention is open to debate. Certainly, Geoffrey seems to have made use of the list of Arthur's twelve battles against the Saxons found in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, along with the battle of Camlann from the Annales Cambriae and the idea that Arthur was still alive. Arthur's personal status as the king of all Britain would also seem to be borrowed from pre-Galfridian tradition, being found in Culhwch and Olwen, the Triads and the Saints' Lives. In addition, many of the elements that Monmouth's King Arthur includes are strong parallels to "Culhwch and Olwen." The motifs and themes of loyalty, honor, giants, gift giving, wife-stealing, and magical creatures are prominent in both stories. Furthermore, Monmouth derived many of his character's names from "Culhwch and Olwen"; Sir Kay comes from "Kai"; Sir Bedivere is derived from "Bedwyr"; and lastly Sir Gawain is "Gwalchmei" in Welsh. Also, the heroines of both tales have similar names: the meaning of Guinever is "White Phantom", while Olwen equates with "of the white track." Finally, Geoffrey borrowed many of the names for Arthur's possessions, close family and companions from the pre-Galfridian Welsh tradition, including Kaius (Cei), Beduerus (Bedwyr), Guenhuuara (Gwenhwyfar), Uther (Uthyr) and perhaps also Caliburnus (Caledfwlch), the latter becoming Excalibur in subsequent Arthurian tales. However, while names, key events and titles may have been borrowed, Brynley Roberts has argued that "the Arthurian section is Geoffrey’s literary creation and it owes nothing to prior narrative." So, for instance, the Welsh Medraut is made the villainous Modredus by Geoffrey, but there is no trace of such a negative character for this figure in Welsh sources until the 16th century. There have been relatively few modern attempts to challenge this notion that the Historia Regum Britanniae is primarily Geoffrey's own work, with scholarly opinion often echoing William of Newburgh's late-12th-century comment that Geoffrey "made up" his narrative, perhaps through an "inordinate love of lying". Geoffrey Ashe is one dissenter from this view, believing that Geoffrey's narrative is partially derived from a lost source telling of the deeds of a 5th-century British king named Riotamus, this figure being the original Arthur, although historians and Celticists have been reluctant to follow Ashe in his conclusions. Whatever his sources may have been, the immense popularity of Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae cannot be denied. Well over 200 manuscript copies of Geoffrey’s Latin work are known to have survived, and this does not include translations into other languages. Thus, for example, around 60 manuscripts are extant containing Welsh-language versions of the Historia, the earliest of which were created in the 13th century; the old notion that some of these Welsh versions actually underlie Geoffrey's Historia, advanced by antiquarians such as the 18th-century Lewis Morris, has long since been discounted in academic circles. As a result of this popularity, Geoffrey's Historia Regum Britanniae was enormously influential on the later medieval development of the Arthurian legend. While it was by no means the only creative force behind Arthurian romance, many of its elements were borrowed and developed (e.g., Merlin and the final fate of Arthur), and it provided the historical framework into which the romancers' tales of magical and wonderful adventures were inserted. Romance traditions
During the 12th century, Arthur's character began to be marginalised by the accretion of "Arthurian" side-stories such as that of Tristan and Iseult. John William Waterhouse, 1916 The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its other derivative works (such as Wace's Roman de Brut) is generally agreed to be an important factor in explaining the appearance of significant numbers of new Arthurian works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France. It was not, however, the only Arthurian influence on the developing "Matter of Britain". There is clear evidence for a knowledge of Arthur and Arthurian tales on the Continent before Geoffrey's work became widely known (see for example, the Modena Archivolt), as well as for the use of "Celtic" names and stories not found in Geoffrey's Historia in the Arthurian romances. From the perspective of Arthur, perhaps the most significant effect of this great outpouring of new Arthurian story was on the role of the king himself: much of this 12th-century and later Arthurian literature centres less on Arthur himself than on characters such as Lancelot and Guenevere, Perceval, Galahad, Gawain, and Tristan and Isolde. Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined. His character also alters significantly. In both the earliest materials and Geoffrey he is a great and ferocious warrior, who laughs as he personally slaughters witches and giants and takes a leading role in all military campaigns, whereas in the continental romances he becomes the roi fainéant, the "do-nothing king", whose "inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society". Arthur's role in these works is frequently that of a wise, dignified, even-tempered, somewhat bland, and occasionally feeble monarch. So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu, whilst in Chrétien de Troyes's Yvain, the Knight of the Lion he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap. Nonetheless, as Norris J. Lacy has observed, whatever his faults and frailties may be in these Arthurian romances, "his prestige is never—or almost never—compromised by his personal weaknesses ... his authority and glory remain intact."
Arthur (top centre) in an illustration to the Middle English poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, late 14th century Arthur and his retinue appear in some of the Lais of Marie de France, but it was the work of another French poet, Chrétien de Troyes, that had the greatest influence with regard to the above development of the character of Arthur and his legend. Chrétien wrote five Arthurian romances between c. 1170 and c. 1190. Erec and Enide and Cligès are tales of courtly love with Arthur's court as their backdrop, demonstrating the shift away from the heroic world of the Welsh and Galfridian Arthur, while Yvain, the Knight of the Lion features Yvain and Gawain in a supernatural adventure, with Arthur very much on the sidelines and weakened. However, the most significant for the development of the Arthurian legend are Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, which introduces Lancelot and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen (Guinevere), extending and popularizing the recurring theme of Arthur as a cuckold, and Perceval, the Story of the Grail, which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King and which again sees Arthur having a much reduced role. Chrétien was thus "instrumental both in the elaboration of the Arthurian legend and in the establishment of the ideal form for the diffusion of that legend", and much of what came after him in terms of the portrayal of Arthur and his world built upon the foundations he had laid. Perceval, although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron, a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance. Similarly, Lancelot and his cuckolding of Arthur with Guinevere became one of the classic motifs of the Arthurian legend, although the Lancelot of the prose Lancelot (c. 1225) and later texts was a combination of Chrétien's character and that of Ulrich von Zatzikhoven's Lanzelet. Chrétien's work even appears to feed back into Welsh Arthurian literature, with the result that the romance Arthur began to replace the heroic, active Arthur in Welsh literary tradition. Particularly significant in this development were the three Welsh Arthurian romances, which are closely similar to those of Chrétien, albeit with some significant differences: Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain is related to Chrétien's Yvain; Geraint and Enid, to Erec and Enide; and Peredur son of Efrawg, to Perceval.
The Round Table experience a vision of the Holy Grail. From a 15th century French manuscript. Up to c. 1210, continental Arthurian romance was expressed primarily through poetry; after this date the tales began to be told in prose. The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle (also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle), a series of five Middle French prose works written in the first half of that century. These works were the Estoire del Saint Grail, the Estoire de Merlin, the Lancelot propre (or Prose Lancelot, which made up half the entire Vulgate Cycle on its own), the Queste del Saint Graal and the Mort Artu, which combine to form the first coherent version of the entire Arthurian legend. The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin. It also made Mordred the result of an incestuous relationship between Arthur and his sister and established the role of Camelot, first mentioned in passing in Chrétien's Lancelot, as Arthur's primary court. This series of texts was quickly followed by the Post-Vulgate Cycle (c. 1230–40), of which the Suite du Merlin is a part, which greatly reduced the importance of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere but continued to sideline Arthur, now in order to focus more on the Grail quest. As such, Arthur became even more of a relatively minor character in these French prose romances; in the Vulgate itself he only figures significantly in the Estoire de Merlin and the Mort Artu. The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the "Arthur of romance" culminated in Le Morte d'Arthur, Thomas Malory's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century. Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table—on the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories. Perhaps as a result of this, and the fact that Le Morte D'Arthur was one of the earliest printed books in England, published by William Caxton in 1485, most later Arthurian works are derivative of Malory's. Decline, revival, and the modern legend
Post-medieval literature The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Although Malory's English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian romances—established since Geoffrey of Monmouth's time—and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain. So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians. Social changes associated with the end of the medieval period and the Renaissance also conspired to rob the character of Arthur and his associated legend of some of their power to enthral audiences, with the result that 1634 saw the last printing of Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur for nearly 200 years. King Arthur and the Arthurian legend were not entirely abandoned, but until the early 19th century the material was taken less seriously and was often used simply as vehicle for allegories of 17th- and 18th-century politics. Thus Richard Blackmore's epics Prince Arthur (1695) and King Arthur (1697) feature Arthur as an allegory for the struggles of William III against James II. Similarly, the most popular Arthurian tale throughout this period seems to have been that of Tom Thumb, which was told first through chapbooks and later through the political plays of Henry Fielding; although the action is clearly set in Arthurian Britain, the treatment is humorous and Arthur appears as a primarily comedic version of his romance character. John Dryden's masque King Arthur is still performed, largely thanks to Henry Purcell's music, though seldom unabridged. Tennyson and the revival
Gustave Doré's illustration of Arthur and Merlin for Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s Idylls of the King, 1868 In the early 19th century, medievalism, Romanticism, and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in Arthur and the medieval romances. A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals that the "Arthur of romance" embodied. This renewed interest first made itself felt in 1816, when Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur was reprinted for the first time since 1634. Initially the medieval Arthurian legends were of particular interest to poets, inspiring, for example, William Wordsworth to write "The Egyptian Maid" (1835), an allegory of the Holy Grail. Pre-eminent among these was Alfred Lord Tennyson, whose first Arthurian poem, "The Lady of Shalott", was published in 1832. Although Arthur himself played a minor role in some of these works, following in the medieval romance tradition, Tennyson's Arthurian work reached its peak of popularity with Idylls of the King, which reworked the entire narrative of Arthur's life for the Victorian era. First published in 1859, it sold 10,000 copies within the first week. In the Idylls, Arthur became a symbol of ideal manhood whose attempt to establish a perfect kingdom on earth fails, finally, through human weakness. Tennyson's works prompted a large number of imitators, generated considerable public interest in the legends of Arthur and the character himself, and brought Malory’s tales to a wider audience. Indeed, the first modernization of Malory's great compilation of Arthur's tales was published shortly after Idylls appeared, in 1862, and there were six further editions and five competitors before the century ended. This interest in the "Arthur of romance" and his associated stories continued through the 19th century and into the 20th, and influenced poets such as William Morris and Pre-Raphaelite artists including Edward Burne-Jones. Even the humorous tale of Tom Thumb, which had been the primary manifestation of Arthur's legend in the 18th century, was rewritten after the publication of Idylls. While Tom maintained his small stature and remained a figure of comic relief, his story now included more elements from the medieval Arthurian romances, and Arthur is treated more seriously and historically in these new versions. The revived Arthurian romance also proved influential in the United States, with such books as Sidney Lanier's The Boy's King Arthur (1880) reaching wide audiences and providing inspiration for Mark Twain's satiric A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). Although the "Arthur of romance" was sometimes central to these new Arthurian works (as he was in Burne-Jones's The Last Sleep of Arthur in Avalon, 1881–1898), on other occasions he reverted back to his medieval status and is either marginalised or even missing entirely, with Wagner's Arthurian operas providing a notable instance of the latter. Furthermore, the revival of interest in Arthur and the Arthurian tales did not continue unabated. By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators, and it could not avoid being affected by the First World War, which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model. The romance tradition did, however, remain sufficiently powerful to persuade Thomas Hardy, Laurence Binyon and John Masefield to compose Arthurian plays, and T. S. Eliot alludes to the Arthur myth (but not Arthur) in his poem The Waste Land, which mentions the Fisher King. Modern legend See also: King Arthur in various media In the latter half of the 20th century, the influence of the romance tradition of Arthur continued, through novels such as T. H. White's The Once and Future King (1958) and Marion Zimmer Bradley's The Mists of Avalon (1982) in addition to comic strips such as Prince Valiant (from 1937 onward). Tennyson had reworked the romance tales of Arthur to suit and comment upon the issues of his day, and the same is often the case with modern treatments too. Bradley's tale, for example, takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials, and American authors often rework the story of Arthur to be more consistent with values such as equality and democracy. The romance Arthur has become popular in film and theatre as well. T. H. White's novel was adapted into the Lerner-Loewe stage musical Camelot (1960) and the Disney animated film The Sword in the Stone (1963); Camelot itself, with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was itself made into a film of the same name in 1967. The romance tradition of Arthur is particularly evident and, according to critics, successfully handled in Robert Bresson's Lancelot du Lac (1974), Eric Rohmer's Perceval le Gallois (1978) and perhaps John Boorman's fantasy film Excalibur (1981); it is also the main source of the material utilised in the Arthurian spoof Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975).
The combat of Arthur and Mordred, illustrated by N.C. Wyeth for The Boy's King Arthur, 1922 Re-tellings and re-imaginings of the romance tradition are not the only important aspect of the modern legend of King Arthur. Attempts to portray Arthur as a genuine historical figure of c. 500 AD, stripping away the "romance", have also emerged. As Taylor and Brewer have noted, this return to the medieval "chronicle tradition"' of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Historia Brittonum is a recent trend which became dominant in Arthurian literature in the years following the outbreak of the Second World War, when Arthur's legendary resistance to Germanic invaders struck a chord in Britain. Clemence Dane's series of radio plays, The Saviours (1942), used a historical Arthur to embody the spirit of heroic resistance against desperate odds, and Robert Sherriff's play The Long Sunset (1955) saw Arthur rallying Romano-British resistance against the Germanic invaders. This trend towards placing Arthur in a historical setting is also apparent in historical and fantasy novels published during this period. In recent years the portrayal of Arthur as a real hero of the 5th century has also made its way into film versions of the Arthurian legend, most notably the TV series Arthur of the Britons and the feature films King Arthur (2004) and The Last Legion (2007). The 2008 BBC series Merlin is a reimagining of the legend in which the future King Arthur and Merlin are young contemporaries. Camelot (2011)  is an exclusive short series of episodes which depict Arthur in ancient Briton and his struggle for the throne. Also, a recent Disney film, Avalon High has been released, the story about a modern day King Arthur and his knights of the round table. Legacy as a role model
In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages Arthur was created a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of Arthur in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors. Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. In the 1930s, the Order of the Fellowship of the Knights of the Round Table formed in Britain to promote Christian ideals and Arthurian notions of medieval chivalry. In the United States, hundreds of thousands of boys and girls joined Arthurian youth groups, such as the Knights of King Arthur, in which Arthur and his legends were promoted as wholesome exemplars. Legacy in popular culture
Arthur's diffusion within contemporary culture goes beyond obviously Arthurian endeavours, with Arthurian names being regularly attached to objects, buildings and places. As Norris J. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level." James felt the gems turn into swords.
James threw them down and dove down also. Nitchel Virtul and Hawk followed. Apparently Virtul and Hawk vanished. Only Nitchel stayed. When the reached the bottom he saw a hole that looked very much like the one he ran to when he got to Gravellet. Instead this time he found a disc from Lectoria and said “Hello…”. Nitchel glanced. “Hello son” a mysterious voice said. “Son? You’re my dad?”James said. “Yes” James’s dad Laurence said in a holograph cal thing. “What happened to mom?” James asked. “She is in Halloween dimension get her for me please thanks.” A portal opened and before you saw anything James was gone. The vortex was a huge spiraling endless wasteland. He went right through a skeleton and was there.
James landed in a wide area of grass. The area was very damp. It had trees with a great amount of moss on them. Also, little twigs all around. The twigs gleamed in the sunlight repelling every beam of light they had. James pushed himself up and took a very nice look around. He saw an ancient writing on the wall it was so small he could not read it. He walked around until he noticed an opening into the woods. He walked in. There was a 3 minute walk straight so he started walking. When he reached the other side it was a Halloween town. There were goblins, ghosts, vampires and anything you could imagine and much, much more. They all lived in peace and harmony. Someone walked up and asked “Are you new here?”. “Yes and you are?” James answered with a follow-up question. “Who are you I am Charlotte Denis and you are?" Charlotte said. "James Gravel.” James answered. “Thee James Gravel the one that has nine days to get the nine gems of life.” Charlotte said. “Yes.” James said unconfidently. “Let me get you your wand.” Charlotte said taking James to a wand store. To which they happened to be standing right by. “Wand, I’m no wizard.” James admitted. “Every chosen one is when they enter this atleast once.” Charlotte said.
James walked in and grabbed a wand and was off.
He went back through the woods but got lost. He heard strange footsteps walking around. James ignored them. Then he felt breathing on the back of his neck. “Do I do turn around.” James muttered very quietly to himself. “Yes!” The person shouted. James turned around. “Leo! Man what’s up I haven’t seen you since kindergarten.” James yelled happily to see his old pal Leo Matts.
They had a conversation.
Leo then agreed to join James’s team which he had to rename because of all the new members. James remembered only 7 members can be on a team. James sat with Leo and they started thinking. James thought and knew the team would be.
James Gravel Nitchel Fox Virtul Fox Karter Kombat Tyson Slasher Drake Defense Leo Howard
He hoped he had made the right choice.
After three days he missed them so he wrote letters to them as much as he could.
Dear Nitchel, 10-28-2011 It’s me James I found out how to get back home. Also I have made the final cut of the team and you stay, nice. The team is:
James Gravel Nitchel Fox Karter Kombat Tyson Slasher Drake Defense Cody Lee
All we need is a seventh member.
I should be back in about 7 days.
When James got on the inter-dimensional plane. He took his seat on C17. Leo was in D14 but Leo decided to stay in this dimension for a while. After 3hrs of flight and no portal to another dimension. James got up to talk to the driver. He got up there and said “Excuse me, sir I think we should have moved a little more by now.” The driver sat still, saying nothing. “Hello I am speaking to you sir” James looked at the nametag. “Counters.” James looked at him slowly and steadily. The poor old man would not move a muscle. The plane started to not move a muscle either. James noticed he was dead. He pulled the announcer and said “I am sorry the driver has died” Everyone gasped in fright.” I will fill in for him. So don’t worry this is the chosen one who is going to help you.” Everyone yelled oh my god it is James Gravel. James grabbed it and moved it up. They headed and James could not bring it back up. Finally he got it going straight then up.
Randomly it headed straight down with James having no control of it what so ever. James tried with all his might. Sadly enough they crashed.
They went the plane. Catching on fire. James took the brake off broke the window and crawled out. James heard weeping crying.
Baby’s suffering and people dieing. It was all dreadful. James saw 3 people make it out before the plane exploded.
Chapter 1 Boarding time
“Good-bye” Many hundreds of people said as they left the dock and set out to sea. Waving handkerchiefs and arms as they set out to the Atlantic Ocean. The next Day.
James and Mason went to the arcade first thing in the morning. James was a young boy eleven years old and very skilled. Mason was a little older than James but he was still eleven. The two boys usually got along. There family was okay. There were getting a new member through a wedding, which is why they were on this five day cruise. When James and Mason got to the arcade. They were so excited. James and Mason split up the money that there parents gave them. They each got 15 dollars. They put it into the coin machine and each received 60 quarters. Mason played a game called make it or break it the goal of that game was to make creations with bricks or destroy others to win. While James gave all of his quarters to Mason cause Mason loved the game and shortly ran out of quarters. When Mason left to get more money, James found a quarter that Mason forgot to use on the floor and picked it up. He walked to the far side of the arcade. Then he put his quarter into a coin slot of a game called the chosen one. James hit start and then it said 1 or 2 players. James hit one. The game had a classic kind of ring to it. Then the screen said level 1 high score 100 points. James started on the arcade machine the machine had an A and B button right next to each other. Then in the middle there were four arrows one was up another was down then the other two were left and right. James started to move. When an enemy came he hit a and the character would attack with a sword. The enemy attacked and James’s character took a little damage. The health bar was red and was missing a small it was at the top of the far left side and his opponent was on the far right side. James attacked again. The enemy tried to attack when James hit b and blocked it.
“Hey what are you playing?” Mason asked as he came back. “The chosen one.” James answered. “I don’t see anything.” Mason’s questionable reply was. James looked behind him and the game vanished.
After that, they headed home to get dressed up for the wedding.
Chapter 2 The wedding
James and Mason headed down the hall and were watching as the wedding went on they were late though. James and Mason sat down right next to each other. James looked behind him and saw the game behind him on the screen it said James Gravel. When the wedding started the game was gone and then a burglar came down and yelled “Give me all the money from this wedding!” James stood up and ran to the other end off the room. The guy was chasing him. The person stopped and threw Mason off the side of the Boat. James hid in the corner. The game came again same with the guy the game had a sword stuck in it though. James ran to it and took it out and attacked him. Before long the guy ran and threw James’s parents off board.James ran over.
Chapter 3 The fun begins “Mom and Dad no!” said the young James Gravel as he watched his mom and dad fall off a boat and into the water. The splash was the last glimpse James saw of his parents. Then lightning struck the boat causing the boat to crash. James jumped off the boat into the water before the boat fell into the water. James saw a shark faintly in the distance. James struggled for breath. James’s eyes closed. The next day. It was a miracle James’s eyes opened he was in an emergency room. “How long have I been out and where are my parents?”James asked. “One day and your parents our well um…in better place.” The nurse said “So you are saying my parents are died? James asked. “Yes” The nurse said. “It was a miracle that I live but unfornatuate that my parents death man how will I tell this to Mason. “James said. “Who” the nurse asked. “Mason Gravel he is my brother and I can’t imagine how he will react when he finds out our parents are dead.” James said “Oh” The nurse said. “Where did you put my cell and why are you still?” Asked James. “On that table we had to get it dried up and okay bye” Said the nurse. James got up out of the bed and started to text Mason.
James:Hey guess wat Mason:U saw a pig flying wit a unicorn J:No M: Well wat then J: u no the boat we were on M:Yes wait wat do u mean were did u guys get thrown off like I did remember literal I got thrown off ;( lolz no J: no srry to say it sank and mom and dad both died from water the last glimpse I saw of them our when the flew off the side of the boat M: Wat are you serious ); J:Yes I am serious y would I lie bout something this serious M: good point where are u now Right as James was trying to respond “at the hospital can u pick me up. The phone suddenly became soaked and shocked James then broke. James did not know how it became soaked then he felt his hands they were also soaked. James pointed his hands at the wall and they started having water come out of them. Then the nurse walked in and said “time for your medicine” but when she opened the door water was pouring out and James was gone. When the news got to Mason he didn’t know what to think his two parents are dead his brother is missing and his sister is at boarding school.On the other hand James had no idea where he was. “Hello is anyone here?” James asked not knowing if anyone is here. James heard some noises on the other side of the woods. His hands were still shooting water so he got to the other side of the woods pretty quick. He saw someone at the other side of a lake summoning water and controlling it. “Hum…excuse what are you doing” Asked James. The man flung the wauter at James. James was actually controlling it. “Ah...so it is you the one master of powers or otherwise a power keeper.”
“Uh a what” James said not knowing what the heck the dude was talking about. “You are the next power keeper.”The man said.
“I heard you I meant what is that?”James asked.
“I will tell you if you can pass this test” The man said. “What test?” James asked. “This” The man said as he threw a tsunami at James.
Shockingly James got the hang of water and repelled it right back at him.
Chapter 4 Aaron Bishop
“What is your name?” Asked James. “Aaron Bishop, yours?” Asked Aaron. “James Gravel isn’t it weird your initials are AB.”James talked. “Not really there are thirteen of us if you find us all you’ll have mastered all the powers we are all power keepers like you but you should find us all master the power.” Aaron said. “Your power is?” James asked. “Water” Aaron said. “Really I can summon water but you probably know that since I threw that tsunami back at you.” James said. “Yes I saw that you are a real power keeper “Aaron said. “Wait I have a idea u should find all of us I can not teach you water since that is your original power” Aaron said.
Chapter 5 Mason and James
MEANWHILE AT MASONS SIDE.
“I need to find James but I will need help I need to get Miranda out of boarding school hopefully she can help but how will I get her out I can’t get mom and dad to get her out cause there dead but what if a guardian gets her out huh lightbulb.” Mason said.So Mason ran to his neighbors house to get the fake guardian. Ding-Dong… “Is anyone home”. Mason asked. “No we are not home” said one of the neighbors trying to be funny. “Drake just let me in.”Mason said. “Okay”Drake said unlocking the door. “Thanks”Mason said. “What”Drake spoke. “I need you and your parents”Mason said. “Remember they died along with yours and shouldn’t you guys have a guardian yet.”Drake said. “You don’t have one.” “Good point why are you here?” So Mason told the plan to Drake.
James training with the elements for his quest.
“So the next guy is named Cole Damons right”James said. “What is he……………….”James asked. “What does coal sound like”Aaron said “Hum…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….oh duh coal wow that was so stupid of me”James spoke. “Ya.”Aaron spoke.
“that was funny how I did not notice for a while right”James said.
“I know I was here”said Aaron still laughing. “Since you know so much about water I don’t have to teach you but don’t expect to get off so easy next time you hear me.!?”Aaron said. “Yes I hear you I’ll just go now bye.”James said.
Meanwhile Mason and Drake had their plan ready.
“C’mon we’re almost there we need Miranda.”Said Mason and Drake at the same split second.After two hours of driving Mason and Drake were asleep.Mason woke up and saw James.Mason was so shocked he opened the door when the parents were inside a store and Drake still asleep.He ran to catch James and James told him everything and Mason did the same.Mason showed James where the car was James told him about Coal.James thought and agreed to follow but by the time they looked the car was gone.They only hope was that Drake and Miranda would come and get them.Then they looked at each other and said “Oh no Drake and Miranda are not a good match”.So James and Mason decided to do this quest together.James told him all the details where Coal is.When they got to the desert where coal is.They have been searching when they start a conversation. “We’ll never going to find him we”James said. “Found him it says use water to open so I can’t get through but you can”Mason said. “I will leave it open and it looks like you have to use the power you learned last time to get shoot no skipping.”James added.James threw water at the pole that needed water and they were in. “Hello.”Mason said. “Coal you here hey Coal.”James added.
They kept on hearing their echo but they faintly heared a answer go “yes I am here”at the other side of the cave it was very even on their side.There was a proficy on the wall it didn’t have a picture on it the wall had writing on it pulled out a pen and a piece of paper (Weird he’d have that in his pocket.) He wrote what was on the wall, 3859768tysonmirandajamesamberdrakeashleymasonnoahmegankarterjulietthatiswhattheteamgetsmarriedtojamespowerkeephjkbhjertysonaretheleartdersandiftheyreadthisbeforetheymeekugtwaittillyodyumeetatleasttoreadthisjamesihoupifherwgfehrr8erigrthsapowerkeeperandtysonisaswordmastertheyteacheachothertheunibygdfqueabilitiesandbecomeunstopableandthatisallicantellyourightnowsogood-byetheend
They ran and finally reached coal.It took them days to learn the power but when Ryan appeared they sent him away with it.This is how it went. “Who’s that?”Asked James.
“It’s Draco his weakness is ground and I’m hurt from training you two use what you have learned and defeat that Slasher brother of evil.”Answered Coal. “Draco swooped down and his dragon scratched James.James was knocked out. “Hey nobody hurts James now you have to deal with some of this Mason.”Mason said concentrating and summoning a earthquake.The dragon squirmed and squaked.Draco flew off the dragon.Mason ran to James. “Are you okay?” “I guess” “Good,let’s go to………..?” “Emily Fliregier.”Coal said. “What power is she.”Mason asked said helping James up. “Talking about her you mean powers last name combination of flieger which is latin for fly and fire which is English for fire good luck you two”Said Coal leaving. “Thanks”Said James and Mason going to Emily Fliregier.
“Mason!!!”James quickly yelled out to Mason as he was being pulled into a hole. “I’ll get you James I promise I swear”said Mason.Right after that exactly 2.57 minutes Drake and Miranda finally showed up they both had scratches on their faces.Drakes was under his left eye.Mirandas was through her mouth. “How did that happen to you people?”Mason asked “Miranda”Drake said. “Drake”Miranda said. “Okay you two probadly are very strange”Said Mason.
After that they heard a screech they turned around and it was DRACO’S DRAGON ,but there was one thing missing Draco was he still knocked out from Mason’s final blow or what?Would Mason fight or find James?
“Quick Drake,Miranda go find James I got this.”Said Mason confidently. “Okay”said Drake and Miranda questionably.
When Mason was battling Emily walked up and told him how to teach and present very quickly the same with flying. I can’t say Mason did this by himself Emily helped him out. They had a big fire ball at the same time and then the dragon absorbed the power and Mason stepped up there was an earthquake.The dragon was gone.Emily burned the hole James was trapped in.Mason looked at it, but his earthquake caused it to go farther into the earth’s core.Mason was going to find James as soon as he could.The problem was James hates staying in one spot.Mason ran to find the rest of the people.
Chapter 7 Gravellet
James: “aggghhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!!”James screamed.James was stuck on a very hard piece of rock, so he used water and the soil around broke and down he went on a rock.When the rock hit solid wall James flew off the rock.When he was falling he shoot water to slow his landing(it was like a water parachute). The ground was slippery cause of that though.On the bright side literally bright he was in a room full of crystals. Rght then a creature made of water grabbed him.James slipped out cause the floor was slippery.He turned around and lightning shoot out of his hands.James was shocked by his new ability.Literally shocked he zapped himself.James used both hands and the creature fell he probadly summoned it with his water landing.His electricity must’ve hit the mountain or something and the mountain under the earth’s core started to fall apart.James ran as fast he flung his hands back and said “Speed!!!”and he went so fast he charged into the wall and it broke it left a scrape on him though.The mountain was collapsing faster though and he did not know how much of the mountain there was to run through so he kept running through the walls and it collapsed faster every time.He kept on going. When he was done going through 17 walls he saw a bright light.He went quicker and quicker and quicker when he was done he was trying to slow down but his legs were still going fast and he ran off a cliff and landed on a volcano.He saw a ocean with the ring of fire and was hoping he could breath under water like he did when he saw his parents die.He dived in.The volcanos erupted unfronatuately.They made him fly up. He would not touch the ground so you can say he learned air/fly which he was supposed to from Emily since he fell down that hole he has been learning a lot of things.He used the water parachute thing again to land.He landed in a strange city called Gravellet. James was walking around when a random girl named Amber ran up to him and said “Are you new here?Please let me show you around.”
“Okay”said James as Amber grabbed his hand and started to show him around.
“Over here is the town market where you can almost buy anything James stay right here I’ll go get us something to eat.”said Amber.
“Okay.”Said James. After 5 minutes Amber never came back so James started to go inside the store.Then he saw Amber on her way out. “Oh there you are”said James. “Yes I am here”said Amber smiling. “What did you get to eat for Dinner?”James asked “Noodles is that what you wanted or do you want me to buy something else James.”Said Amber. “It’s fine so in other words did you just invite me to dinner”asked James. “Yes,will you please join me?”Asked Amber. “Yes yes yes!!!”said James. “Great I’ll text you the deets”said Amber. “Wait one problem I do not have my phone I dropped it when a dragon attacked me.Can I use yours quick?”Said James. “Wait wait wait a dragon attacked you? Yes you can use my phone who will you call/text.”Amber said. “Long story and my brother Mason.”Said James. “Yes you can use it while I go find my brother Drake do me a favor and take care of it for about 3 days.Yes I will miss dinner though anyways thanks.”Amber said. “Okay”James said lovestruckly. “Thanks”said Amber. So James started to text Mason. J:hey Mason answer me I am using someone elses phone it’s me James!!!
M:who’s phone r u using J:Amber Defense M:DUDE THAT IS DRAKE’S SISTER GO AND CATCH SO U CAN CATCH UP WIT US AND GET OUT OF WEREEVER U R!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! J:Gotcha’
James turned the phone off.Mason still had one more text though,
M:And one more very important thing I got a werewolf girlfriend her name is Seryn
“Hey Amber wait up”screaming James trying to catch up to Amber.
“Yes James”said Amber. “I need to come with you Drake is my friend and you’re his sister,by the way here is your phone so what do you say can I come with you?”asked James. “Yes he is my brother,I still have a text from your brother it says One last very important thing I have gf that is a werewolf named Seryn or something like that yes you can come with me and wait werewolf what James what is this all about?”questioned Amber. “Well…funny story well long story now”said James as he started to run away from this story. Amber chased him Amber had powers she was using speed and caught up to James. “You are the goddess of the power keepers”James said in amazement. Amber sent a fire ball at him and said “You have no powers so battle me”. “That is what you think”said James throwing a water ball breaking the fire ball and hitting Amber. “Stop Amber if we need to do this then you need to train me.”James said. “Fine I will train you James”Amber said. “Great”James said.
There is just a little I also write songs but I guess you are tired from reading that so I'll put that on a different page.